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The force that was sent was to assist the king in reclaiming the kingdom of Judaea. After the fall of Caesar, almost the entire Third Gallica was handed over to Mark Antony to assist him in the battles against the Parthians.
It is said that the brave men of the Gallica fought gallantly against the far stronger might of the Parthians.
They eventually had to retreat but not before saving the rest of the Roman army already engaged in the battle. This legion is famous in the history of the imperial Roman army and was considered to be a twin of the much revered Legio VI Ferrata.
The Victrix played a crucial role in bringing Antony and Cleopatra to their knees by running through their opponents during the Pannonian campaigns of 39 to 36 BC.
Perhaps the biggest blow to any chances of Antony and Cleopatra claiming the empire came when Legio VI Victrix, along with other legions, defeated the enemy in the Battle of Actium.
The Victrix then went on to assist Augustus in his war against the Cantabrians that continued for almost 10 years starting in 29 BC. The legion was then stationed in freshly conquered contemporary Spain where it stayed for nearly a century.
During this time, the city of Legio was founded known as Leon in the present day. Legio Duodevigesima, or simply the 18th, was also founded in 41 BC, again by soon-to-be Emperor Augustus.
But Augustus never delivered on his promise. Around the time when Caesar started his governing duties at Hispania, he realized he was one legion short in order to kick off his carefully planned campaign.
That is when he formed the Equestris Legion, the first legion Caesar levied personally, and one that proved to be the most trustworthy.
That is how the 10th Legion got its new cognomen and went on to be known as Legio X Equestris. The Equestris Legion was in the thick of the action when the Gallic Wars broke out.
In fact, it was involved in pretty much every war Caesar declared upon his enemies. Outline Timeline. Foundation Kingdom overthrow Republic.
Categories : Military units and formations of ancient Rome Roman legions Roman legionary fortresses. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Part of a series on the. Campaign history Wars and battles. Strategy and tactics Infantry tactics. Hispania Tarraconensis.
Was raised from marines of Classis Misenensis. Disbanded for cowardice in Batavi revolt. Failed to engage Boudica Capitoline Wolf Rome's national emblem.
Ras al-Ayn , Syria. Belgrade , Serbia. Disbanded in Batavi revolt. XX during Batavian rebellion in 70 or at the first Battle of Tapae in XX at Battle of Edessa ?
Only 1 record. In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of roughly one hundred men.
These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them.
Such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded completely in later periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops.
The roles of century leader later formalised as a centurion , second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period.
With this all Roman able-bodied, property-owning male citizens were divided into five classes for military service based on their wealth and then organised into centuries as sub-units of the greater Roman army or legio multitude.
Joining the army was both a duty and a distinguishing mark of Roman citizenship; during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service.
These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen. The first and wealthiest common class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, sword, helmet, breast plate and round shield called clipeus in Latin, similar to the Greek aspis , also called hoplon ; there were 82 centuries of these of which two were trumpeters.
Roman soldiers had to purchase their own equipment. The second and third class also acted as spearmen but were less heavily armoured and carried a larger oval or rectangular shield.
The fourth class could afford no armour; perhaps bearing a small shield and armed with spear and javelin. All three of the latter classes made up about 26 centuries.
The fifth and final class was composed only of slingers. There were 32 centuries raised from this class, two of which were designated engineers.
The army officers as well as the cavalry were drawn from leading citizens who enrolled as equestrians equites. The equites were later placed in smaller groups of 30 that were commanded by decurions which means commander of ten.
There were 18 centuries of equites. Until the 4th century BC the massive Greek phalanx was the mode of battle. Roman soldiers would have thus looked much like Greek hoplites.
Tactics were no different from those of the early Greeks and battles were joined on flat terrain. Spearmen would deploy themselves in tightly packed rows to form a shield wall with their spears pointing forwards.
They charged the enemy supported by javelin throwers and slingers; the cavalry pursued the enemy, sometimes dismounting to support infantry in dire situations.
The phalanx was a cumbersome military unit to manoeuvre and was easily defeated by mountain tribes such as the Volsci or Samnites in rough terrain.
Early civilian authorities called praetors doubled as military leaders during the summer war season. A declaration of war included a religious ceremony ending with the throwing of a ceremonial javelin into the enemy's territory to mark the start of hostilities.
At some point, possibly in the beginning of the Roman Republic after the kings were overthrown , the legio was subdivided into two separate legions, each one ascribed to one of the two consuls.
In the first years of the Republic, when warfare was mostly concentrated on raiding, it is uncertain if the full manpower of the legions was summoned at any one time.
In BC, when three foreign threats emerged, the dictator Manius Valerius Maximus raised ten legions which Livy says was a greater number than had been raised previously at any one time.
Also, some warfare was still conducted by Roman forces outside the legionary structure, the most famous example being the campaign in BC by the clan army of gens Fabia against the Etruscan city of Veii in which the clan was annihilated.
Legions became more formally organized in the 4th century BC, as Roman warfare evolved to more frequent and planned operations, and the consular army was raised to two legions each.
In the Republic, legions had an ephemeral existence. Except for Legio I to IV, which were the consular armies two per consul , other units were levied by campaign.
Rome's Italian allies were required to provide a legion to support each Roman Legion. Each of these three lines was subdivided into usually 10 chief tactical units called maniples.
A maniple consisted of two centuries and was commanded by the senior of the two centurions. At this time, each century of hastati and principes consisted of 60 men; a century of triarii was 30 men.
These men twenty maniples of men, and ten maniples of 60 men , together with about velites and cavalry gave the mid Republican "manipular" legion a nominal strength of about men.
The Marian reforms of Gaius Marius enlarged the centuries to 80 men, and grouped them into 6-century "cohorts" rather than two-century maniples. Each century had its own standard and was made up of ten units contubernia of eight men who shared a tent, a millstone, a mule and cooking pot.
These still depended on the shock tactics of pilum and gladius, but the 5,—6, heavy infantry in a legion were now combined with an equal number of supporting cavalry troops and light infantry made up of archers, slingers, and javelin men.
In order to deal with mounted barbarian raiders, the proportion of cavalry rose from one-seventh to one-fourth. By the 4th century ad , with the empire defending its many fortified border outposts, as many as 10 catapults and 60 ballistae were assigned to each legion.
In modern times the term legion has been applied to a corps of foreign volunteers or mercenaries, such as the French provincial legions of Francis I and the second-line formations of Napoleon.
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With each legion having 5, legionaries plus an equal number of auxiliary troops, the total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 11, downwards.
The more prestigious legions were stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to have more auxiliaries.
Some legions may have been reinforced with units making the force near 15,—16, or about the size of a modern division. The legion was commanded by a legate.
Aged about thirty, he would usually be a senator on a three year appointment. Immediately subordinate to the legate would be six appointed military tribunes.
Five would be staff officers and the remaining one would be a noble heading for the Senate — originally this tribune commanded the legion.
There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers, the praefectus castrorum commander of the camp and other specialists such as priests and musicians.
Despite a number of reforms, the legionary system survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire , and was continued in the Eastern Roman Empire until around 7th century.
Centurions were the glue which held a Roman legion together. They were the full-time professional officers of the Roman army.